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Member of Sociological Association from
1980r & of AAAS from 2001r
Socio-economic aspects of connection of UNR and ZUNR
Want to remind present following. We all live in the first wave of getting up of fifth Kondrat'evsk’s Wave which yet will push us all to more active and interesting life to 2020 We are expected by openings which already must take a place after the prognoses of group of Clarke (70% its was carried out for the 90-th years of ХХ age), namely:
- Management and telesonsorni devices a weather is already almost must take a place;
- Management heredity, robots &nuclear conflicts, - somewhere 2020yr.;
- Getting of useful mineries in space - somewhere 2030 yr.;
- Transformation of elements and clever animals - somewhere 2040 yr.;
- Management a gravitation - somewhere in 2050yr.
From this prospect, somehow, on the face of it, all of our researches and analysis are not quite appropriate historical enough debatable material, because artificiality of influence on many events blinds eyes for every impartial researcher. But however for us all has only history, except for that which we know, which study, and understanding of which disturbs us no less than future alterations and changes are scolded. And it because truthful and deep cognition of the roots will do us wiser, will do possible us all to survive the future intellectual and spiritual loadings. And above all things we all are interested so-called (dolenosni) Great events are for our country, for our nation. Act of Connection belongs to these considerable of Great (dolenosnikh) events. About the real Act more or less in Stanislaw it knows almost every inhabitant, because events were partly in our place and it not by chance. Galichina always was the spiritual center of Western Ukraine, much began on its walks of life and a lot of what historians do not wish yet to know. But in relation to Act of Connection all is almost known and it is considered that it is possible only to find out influence of that or other personality and it already will be good, because all of basic documents are studied and their analysis almost can give nothing new. It seems to us that it not so. Above all things, we somehow separately estimate events which took a place by then in Za-Carpathian , to Galichina and in Central and East Ukraine, and also on Kuban. And events are bright enough and at their consideration all becomes clear, especially to us in 2010 year.
"The Ukrainian question is old – its is the person of the same the age of the Ukrainian ethnographic element in composition the Moscow state. In different times this question acquired different forms" - wrote in 1915 V. Vernadskiy. And it one utterance does clear all of failures to the first halves of ХХ age in relation to the revival of the state system in Ukraine.
Separate brilliant actions, as actions I kurinj of Sichevikh Sagittarius are under guidance E. Konoval'cya, which cruelly strangled an anti-State revolt in Kyiv at the end of January - at the beginning of February in 1918, the same winning a few very important days. And it enabled the Ukrainian diplomats on 9 February (on January, 27 old calendar) 1918 to sign the Brest peaceful agreement is very important for the fate of Ukraine with the Central States (By Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria) which acknowledged independence of UNR and UCR was obligated to give military help in an exchange on supplying with plenty of products for these countries. But farther there are such actions which fully remind all of events of contemporaneity with the sale of MK «Krivorizhstal'» and receipt of credits from IVF.
Such conclusions of historians very interesting - «E.Konovalec' remained in Kyiv and tried to the extent of the forces possibilities to influence on a Hetman, that P. Skoropadskiy carried out more self-weighted Ukrainian, but not Russia (prorosiysku) policy. Unfortunately, it he did not succeed to do to a full degree, at the same time, at the end of August in 1918 E. Konovalec' got permission of P.Skoropadskiy on forming of separate detachment of Sichevikh Sagittarius with the mistune of basing in White Church, and he carried out this project successfully. In course of time a hetman all anymore was under influence of the Russian monarchists, transforming in their hands on an obedient marionette (selection of main - A.V.-M.)».
Hardness to give a positive estimation such actions, as well as actions, when the «leaders of Directory could not decide with whom to co-operate: with bourgeois the Entente, whether with proletarian Russia, and in the revolutionize even tried to be yet more radical than bolshevists». In general, who were they these leaders ? Who did they present ? Presumably, only external secret service to Russian Empire. Especially, all of it is perceived on even a humors, when we only transfer diplomatic activity of «independent by then from good sense of Ukraine». And indeed do please conclusions.
It knows all presently, that most powerful after composition and quantity was extraordinary diplomatic delegation of UNR at Parisian Peace Conference (in 18.01.1919 - in 21.01.1920). In it took part 27 countries, but from new-creation only Poland and Czechoslovakia. The leading organ of conference was Advice to ten (afterwards Advice four), but a decision role was played by countries-victresses presented the heads of governments: To France - Zh.Klemanso, to Great Britain - D. Lloyd George and the USA is president V.Vil'son. In composition their delegations there were a minister for foreign affairs, and also secretaries of war, experimental experts from problems, which was examined: League of Nations, reparations, new States, territorial problems, colonies. An important place occupied the question of fight against bolshevist’s Russia and decision of the „Russian problem”. Will mark that the heads of the Entente almost unanimously spoke out for intervention and powerful help anti-bolshevist forces in Russia. Presently historians write slyly, that it «infused with Ukraine a hope to find understanding with the leaders of conference and send own delegation to Paris».
We will find presently and such information, that on January, 10 in 1919 minister for foreign affairs UNR V.Chekhivskiy formed delegation the special decision of government at the head with G.Sidorenkom in composition: secretary general M.Rudnickiy, group of diplomats - O.Shul'gin, A.Margolin, A.Galip, V.Paneyko, D.Isaevich; group of advisers (14 persons !) - M.Kushnir, M.Tugan-Baranovskiy (what was the minister of industry, finances and trade of Ukrainian Central Advice, together with V.I.Vernadskim and row of other scientists became creators of Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, held a position of dean and manager of department of the Kiev University, and died on position of adviser of Government of the Ukrainian People Republic, delegation of which headed for Parisian Peace Conference, in January in 1919 and buried in Odessa), S.Shelukhin, B.Matyushenko, S.Tomashivskiy, V.Timoshenko and others.; office (34 persons !) and informative bureau (20 persons (!), from them 6 journalists for illumination of work of conference). Say please, what facilities all of it was done on ? Who did pay bills ? Here that is sense to find out by honest historians.
Write presently, that without regard to more unfavorable terms, than in the days of Get'manatu, it was succeeded to save MFA of UNR or found new consular establishments, although it was enough difficultly. But point, for example, that already in December 1918 a Soviet Government accepted a decision about liquidation of the Ukrainian consulates (37 establishments !) on territory of Russia. And in order that responsibility fallen down on Ukraine, «sincere Ukrainians from Muscovy» prepare documents in which almost at the same time the government of UNR accepted a decision about their recall or liquidation. But a structure and states of consular establishments of Get'manatu and, on possibility, part of their vehicle was leave. From information of V.Trembickogo, in 1919-1920 General consulates made the consular network of Directory UNR in Berlin, Dancigu, Tiflisi and Riga. Influence of free spirit from Ukraine on Russia was stopped, and influence of Russia (prorosiyskikh) in the essence ideas from Ukraine for the whole world was stimulated. What did nobody understand it in the west ?! Consulates, vice-consulates and consular agencies (in all 27 !), operated in Athens, Baku, Batumi, Berni, Brussels, Budapest, Bucharest, Warsaw, Hague, Gel'sinki, Yerevan, Geneva, Copenhagen, Koshici, London, Munich, Paris, Prague, Rome, Sofii, Stockholm, Sukhumi, Tallini, Cyurikhu, Chernivcyakh. Will mark that at the beginning of 1921, when a government operated in emigration in Poland, them remained in all a few: in Berlin, Dancigu, Baku, Batumi and Riga.
Very well understood all this «child's geopolitics» and in the West, and in America, and in the Asiatic countries, but belonged for Christian to the people, to those Ukrainians, who though a bit wished to live for human, although can in the depth of the soul and was not a Christian man, but worked off the task of requiring payment agent of the Imperial «sages». But to put them already became people, became the real Christians. We can find in printing articles and all the same trudged are «Diplomatic establishments of UNR far more active the previous was opened out abroad propagandistsko- informative activity, opened out large-scale activity in relation to watching over Ukrainians abroad. Due to sacrificial labour of the diplomats given Ukrainian business, world society all more favorable behaved to the heroic fight of the Ukrainian people for independence of the state. Although winning over numerous and powerful enemies was not succeeded, governments and people of many countries had felt with Ukrainians, the armies of UNR gave refuge, to the government which lasted in emigration to the receipt by Ukraine of independence of 1991r.» Indeed, to 15-ti the thousandth Ukrainian army was fed by Cech and refuge was given many «victims of east repressions» in Europe. But who was indeed from these «nationalists» by victims ?
Here that is sense to find out them by historians! Historians mark that «In October in 1919, when on Caucasus to Tiflisa, where continued to operate from February extraordinary legation of UNR at the head with I.Kraskovskim, drove out on the task of S.Petlyuri I.Sokal'skiy. The Ukrainian diplomats got a task to conduct meetings and negotiations with the representatives of Kuban in relation to creation of the Black Sea Federation.» Does not the prototype of modern integration association the Black Sea Economic Collaboration remind it you?
Presumably those aims put then, as well as today, but it is then needed it was domogtis' yet greater, namely confession of Kuban as an independent international legal subject. Interesting, as historical science testifies -«Ukrainian accepted Kuban as allies, helped to make and send Advice Four with requests to acknowledge a memorandum Kuban, to admit to participating in a conference and to accept Kuban in League of Nations.»
Poor Advice Four - it artificial virtual State educations heaped up the different scraps of paper from Russia which not wanted to work together with the whole World. Historians mark also, that «Kyiv tried to continue and develop contacts with the states of Caucasus: By Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. In February in 1919 Ukrainian legation was created under the direction of I. Kraskovskiy to Tiflisa. On April, 4 he arrived on a place and opened out activity, engulfing entire three countries.» And modern integration agreement of GUUAM, does engulf what countries ?
Also Georgia, Azerbaijan, and yet Uzbekistan and Moldova. That approach is only in 80 years. Large practical benefit, meaning an economic aspect, from these agreements ? Who does talk today about its ? In a volume business, that all only in an order to «point panic on the World» (an utterance of Henry Ford is about the factors of wars in ХХ age). In general, all of anti-Antante of condition and agreement, and also moods in Ukraine that time, which was circulated by MFA of UNR, does not remind us in 2010 the ANTINATO shows-presentations in Crimea and in other cities of Ukraine ?
Beg pardon, but all of it reminds me the tents of «Front of Changes» of Yacenyuka and his slogans of «Industrialization».
All of it already in the past, as well as and pseudo policy, languages on defence of interests of Ukraine. Because a question is already not in facilities, but in the shots of well-educated diplomats (and can in actual fact and not quite diplomats) which getting is impossible instantly. And presently fully sure of that geopolitical project which carried the conditional name «Independence of Ukraine» was stuck Ukrainians, put it mildly.
So, that all that did take a place artificial and was not and does not have the real sources of positive changes ?
Not such sources were then and they exist and today. Above all things, in 1875 Europe was almost heaped up bread from America, which reduced prices in four times, and it is the greatest blow to the East, which then can it was be inflicted, because bread for Empire then was at the level of oil today. It is needed it was to search an answer and by these answers and all of soldiery conflicts of ХХ age became, social democratic revolutions in Hungary and Germany, revolution in Russia and others like that.
It is not possible to forget that in Western Ukraine most enterprises were built due to the Polish and German capitals, but a trade capital was mainly Jewish. And the actions of social democracy, so-called, were directed on grounded «marxist science» robbery through nationalization, a to that example of all of social democratic vlastolyubciv on the East was contagious enough and all wanted to imitate its a bit torknuvshiesya knowledges young people, especially, when all was in the clothings of morality.
But were and real deep positive for to all of measurings of force. They were created by Greek-Catholic Churches, which rescued the Ukrainian culture and Ukrainian national idea indeed. There was forming self under Kyiv of T. Masarik the 40-thousandth Czechoslovakia corps which became basic support of the Czechoslovakia state system afterwards. And T. Masarik one of the first acknowledged Directory of UNR (!). There was resistance of Sichevikh shooters to the cavalry to Soviet Russia which went to Warsaw, that rescued it from fascination.
Much was indeed heroic not «taken into account the scenarios of geopolitical easterly» acts of patriots of Ukraine, which positively influenced on alteration of World democracy. Therefore Act of Connection and activity of ZUNR actually at all of artificiality of many actions showed unity of Ukrainian nation. This event very positively influenced on many events in the World. That to talk !, savage golodomors (murder of people hunger) was not able to destroy that positive influence which did Act of Connection on Ukrainian nation.
And it we also feel presently. And all of us live presently in a country which enters in 20 the most powerful countries of the World and after sizes Ukraine the most European country after Russian Federation and universities in this country no less than in Germany and France together, and it all it is not simple it was to attain.
And there was it is attained only because Act of Connection needed in that time both the people of Ukraine and the East. And from here conclusion - when work for to the concerted directions recognition interests of neighbors then and historical events take a place, what indeed carry important (dolenosniy) character on a draught almost ages.
Completing, it is needed to do a prognosis more or less correct on the nearest time. Remind therefore, that the that wave of fifth Kondrat'evsk’s cycle (1990-95 to 2015-20), which is characterized beginning of the third industrial revolution (we live in), leans against microelectronics, biotechnology, nuclear and thermonuclear energy and on Internet-technology. We already outlived a lot of events in an intellectually spiritual plan, namely is Forum of Millennium at 2000, expansion of EU and introduction of institute of President in New Super-country – European Union in 2007-10 yryr., opening of law of Preservation of Labour (1999-2003) and creation of much-sciences conceptions of historical development.
On this background of marking by us in 2010 in Ivano-Francovsk University of Law named of King Daniel Galickiy of Large Event for Europe - signing of Act of Connection, as though abuts upon beginning of destructive for East Europe of migrations wave, which will be characterized the not amount of emigrants, but quality of no-want from active labour of specialists in East Europe (so-called internal emigration). There is appearance of Pan Kuz'muk, future secretary of defense of Ukraine, in 9.02.2010 on television, as though signifies beginning of this process for all of Ukrainians.
But we are research workers and understand that all cyclic and the slump of rates of intellectually spiritual development will change getting up, on which we all work and will work. And all of fight, actual fight of individuals on a background artificial «historical events» did and will do that the noblest nation of the World Getto-Dakki-Ukrainians which already 2500 years give together with leading nations of the World a hope Humanity on the Future, will, without regard to all of geopolitical scenario writers, go a way which for this part of universe planned GOD (Creator).
1. Vinnichenko V. Vidrodzhennya nations. - K.: Vienna, 1920. - Ch. ІІІ. - S. 322-333.
2. Shevchenko I. Bilya sources: Becoming of Ukrainian diplomacy of UNR of // Policy and time. - 1995. - № 9. - S. 79.
3. Vidnyanskiy s.V. the Ukrainian question in the looks of T.G. Masarika and policy of the first Czechoslovakia republic of // of T.G. Masarik and new Europe: Materials of conference. - K., 1998. - S. 22-27.
4. New Advice. - on January, 1919. - 19.
5. Blacksmiths of P. Diplomacy activity in times of the Ukrainian State // Calendar-almanac of Red Kalyny on 1939 - Lvov, 1939. - S. 129-136.
6. Ivanis V. Borot'ba Kuban for independence. - Munchin, 1968. - S. 90-92.
7. CDAVO of Ukraine, f. 1429 (Fund of office of Directory UNR), op. 3, spr. 48, ark. 52.
Stanislaw - Stanislawiw (from 1962 Ivano-Francivsk)
|Категория: Germanariha-Mandrykino-Kremnes(Mariupol) /Cossack Mandryvn-Myzij Catholic-Iryna, Volodymyr | Добавил: Vasiljev (2010-02-15) | Автор: Alexander Vasiljev-Muller|
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