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Institute of Olge W. Wasilievoj-Catholic of Economical and Socio-Cultural Researchers
Інститут економіко-соціокультурних досліджень ім. Ольгі В. Васильєвої-Католик
76000 Ukraine Box 228 Ivano-Frankivsk (Stanislaw before 1962 yr)
Ukrainian night on a farm Catholic - A.I. Kuindzhi (1876), Kallmiuska Palanka (Gothia) is 25 versts from Age- old Kremness - Adomakhi (city Sent. Maria - Mariupol)
Task a candidate for a degree Primary purposes of dissertation research on 2010 in the Oxford University
In recommendations to dissertation work of «Feature of becoming of the linguistic Newly-Ukrainian language (short - Russian) constructs, taking into account the dynamics of economic development in Central Europe (Regions of Galychiny and Lemberg), at organic aspiration it is wide to use a Romano-German’s language culture» the question of objectivity of historical estimation of events of modern history was in earnest affected and the examples of conjuncture approach, shown even on international conferences by the politically adjusted leaders of some Ukrainian private universities are resulted. Certainly, consideration and analysis of reasons of such tactlessness of estimations needed, but to orient a young researcher to enter into a fight against people dealings in Ukraine «Large Politics» for mass medias it will be not quite correct with sew on sides.
The leaders of scientific establishments, affording to talk «on black white», certainly, realize perfectly, that their Reports not have no attitude toward the real science, but called to create a negative informative wave and put on the brakes objective aware nesses of historical true in the environment of young researchers in Ukraine and, from their point of view, desirably and in the states of Europe and America. Obvious and frank speculation goes authority of science and research worker (psychological attacks on Christian bases of civilization). Therefore they will fight in the country all of possible methods against people, indicative on their scientific tactlessness, and by not at all scientific methods.
Fight against such requiring «payment terrorists» there is sense to leave scientists which already have certain authority in scientific circles and undertook the load of responsibility for the level of objectivity of estimations in a scientific environment in science. Maybe - even their position will be endeavored long time to ignore. But the self presence of this position and of principle in attitude toward obviously groundless political labels in scientific reports and articles is extremely needed for scientists of country, aspiring to join in Civilization processes, as oriental and real possibility to be not added the momentary pointing of no-clever temporal leaders of one or another state education.
In this dissertation research we would like, that a candidate for a degree turned the attention on cleanly scientific problems which follow from the objective understanding of historical process in Central Europe.
For the specification of directions of scientific search it is expedient to pay a regard to some historical facts which spill bright light on processes in the humanitarian sphere of Central Europe. These facts on new explain the phenomena, saved in languages, and dynamics of borrowing and development of languages of people of Central Europe.
We will specify basic moments, in our way to opinion, which are needed for understanding of genesis of historical process in Central Europe.
At first, it is necessary expressly to realize that Yaspers was indeed right, when talked about a large value for modern nations and people of all of historical processes which happened on sew on to earth since 5-6 century to Birth of Christa. History of fight of Military Order of Cossacks-Goths (determination of the Cossacks by given Skal'kovskiy), which proceeds and in XXI century, is bright confirmation of conclusions of large intellectual person of Europe Yaspers. In fact the succession of moral orienteers is obvious even at a retrospective acquaintance with historical facts.
So in a letter from 1.10.2009 to the Pope Roman Benedict XYI we underlined: «But what endless wisdom of the great European politicians in a fight Artemiya Vasiljev (Kumpan) and Peter Kalnyshevskiy with managing Russian Empire for the maintenance of original culture of the Cossacks, high spirituality and internal freedom showed up in 1757 and in 1775 !! While it is neither in Europe, neither in America nor in Ukraine of historians which fully would understand the depth of political project and strategic combination of these two Prominent European politicians of XYIII of century. This project continues to realize our civilization and today. It is not a long ago in the shown world of Peter Kalnyshevskiy, but works and lives his descendant the First National President of Ukraine Victor Andrey Yushchenko. The few remembers the last General clerk of Zaporozhia Sechi Artemiya Vasiljev (Kumpan), but selflessly worked in Ukraine and striven for development of science (with 1963) and maintenance of academic establishments in PriAzov's Region (2007 to) his descendant Valery Alexandrovich Vasiljev. But really only it, and all of economic clear-zones and European Regions, and many-ways industrial groups (as MMC named Il’icha), saving an rural-industrial complex in three Regions of PriAzov Land is all mortgaged in 1757 year. Then Cossacks-Goths chosen and sent on an assignment to Sent-Petersburg of deputies Artemiya Vasiljev (Kumpan) and Peter Kalnyshevskiy, which must were obtain from Empress a deed on Cossack liberties, and actually document on a Cossack autonomy which in 1575 Stephen Batoriy confirmed, in 1655 Bogdan-Zinoviy Khmel'nickiy confirmed the Universalom, and in 1775 must was confirm Russian Empire. That was done by Russian Empire all know - destroyed Zaporozh’s Sich. But ... somehow all took a place untalented. The troops of Russian Empire surrounded Cossacks-Goths in their stronghold on Khortice, and practically all of Cossacks-Goths went away in Turkey (5 thousands men) with which just militated and gained above it allegedly victory (?!). How could happen so ? When did the won over Turks show such endless tolerance and loyalty to the winners ? Little that - Cossacks-Goths served even on Malta !! So who did Russian Empire win over ?
Certainly, as usual, itself ! Genius of Peter Kalnyshevskiy and Artemiya Vasiljev (Kumpan) consisted in that they, at first, saved life thousands of Cossacks-Goths, secondly, fully in the international arena discredited Russian Empire, and main - saved a culture and ineradicable aspiring to independence at millions of Ukrainians ! They «won» the Turkish troops so, that those were ready to accept them at escape from Russian troops (what was realized), not accepting even participation active in military operations, but collected in an order to punish Zaporozh’s Sich for aspiring to the autonomy. An empire needs was a bloody conflict, and not able to obtain him ! Certainly, Peter Kalnyshevskiy for it paid 25 years of incarceration in Solovk’s Monastery, and people were forced to conduct passive resistance, when by decades destroyed his economic mode, but fully it to obtain not able so (!). Yes, indeed, as we see and in XXI century, not able to win over people under no circumstances - in fact people were and remains deeply Christian. And by crimes, winning over Christian people is impossible ! It yet Romans understood in a fight against Armenia ! Why did not Russian Empire of it understand, and today and Russian Federation of it does not understand?»
In the same letter underlined by us: «Divine Love pierces every cell of Life and lives in every Divine Creation, in Everybody. This Love have given sense of existence all of Human Family from the moment of creation of the World. This Love is felt hourly by millions of Christians on all of continents. It unites people in the name creation the best - more difficult and interesting World in sew on parts of galaxy. This Love every minute was felt in the heart by Large Scientist and Prominent economist, academician of Ukraine, of Russian Federation and by New York Academies of Sciences, doctor, professor Valery Alexandrovich Vasiljev, which 11 years headed our Institute and managed to obtain confession of his advanced studies and in Ukraine and after its limits (!). He exceptionally was proud of that blood of knights of Europe, accomplishing exploits in the name Coffin God flows in his tendons, and then givings life the prominent aristocrats of Europe - Polansky, Kumpan, Muller, Ratcinger. But main - he very well understood the role of the grand-grand-…grandfather Artemiya Vasilievicha Vasiljev (Kimpan) in a fight for the maintenances of the most ancient German state in Europe (carrying the name Gothia at first, then Germanarikha, and then to Zaporozh’s Sich), the spirit of which yet lived Cossacks-Goths of Azov’s Army, and then and in all of Cossack villages of Kuban, where transmigrated basic part of Cossacks-Goths in 1865-66. This spirit was not broken by (golodomory) murder hunger in 1920&32-33 and under Mariupol part on two opposite camps people (Cossacks-Goths) in 1942 did not want to shoot in each other, did not go on a fratricide, but played off a fight on sables. Ringing of sables was audible on a 20 km from the place of duel, but not shed blood (!). History of wars knows nothing of the kind. What real vital wisdom of the great European people is in this historical fact (!).»
The noted facts are not studied while in neither in schools nor in the universities of Ukraine, and the more so to Russian Federation. But they are eloquent and compel us all to reminisce 200 meters of bas-reliefs on Troyan’s Column in Rome (saved fully), where Emperor Troyan is buried not only, and on which the fight of Rome is imprinted with Getto-Dakkiey (by ancient Ukraine) as early as 1 century. All obviously, that without difficult economic life and developed language the state and people could not exist.
But it is then necessary to talk about exceptional antiquity of Ukrainian on which then the linguistic German language constructs influenced positively. Why do we talk positively ? And because the German warriors were invited the leaders of Getto-Dakkov for a fight against Rome, when indeed already there were not possibilities to return bulldogging Rome earths (right after Troyan Romans wanted to go away from «Troyan’s Dakkii», but held out). For ancient Ukraine it was not conquest from the side of the German people, but joint liberation fight against Rome. Therefore and perception of culture of the German people must was be positive and the mutual borrowings must were differ lightness.
All of these borrowings, obviously, it is possible to find in modern linguistic constructions. On known we already endeavored to pay attention. We wrote in recommendations on the topic: «Therefore, a candidate for a degree can recommend to look the sources of the Ukrainian economic terms in a Goth’s language, works on which were saved without changes. Why, probably, ancient Germans - were Goths taken by these terms ? And because their economic life at that time was far poorer and city professions absented practically, and Getto-Dakki created whole network of the city settlements. We will find indirect confirmation of this hypothesis in the obvious borrowing of major intellectually-spiritual term ancient Germans, as for 2th so for 21th century - a term designating Creator - God, namely «Goth». So Getty named Creator and from respect also and the King, but ancient Germans rendered such considerable by him favor, that all of the German people was adopted Goths (By Gods). So in history it is the name and remained and will last to the end of all sew on imperfect, but in something exceptionally just, civilizations.» Coming from these clarifications - becomes obvious, that the values of Truth and Good are inherent German metaetnosu were initially inherent and Ukrainian metaetnosu, that deeply brings together these two historical metaetnosa.
Secondly, there is sense to pay a regard to such widely known information: «Indisputably only that Ukrainian is one of the most ancient indo-European languages. The presence of archaic vocabulary, and some phonetic and morphological lines, stored Ukrainian during centuries, testifies about it. Antiquity of Ukrainian was proved by the row of domestic and foreign scientists: Paul Shafarik, Michael Krasuskiy, Alex Shakhmatov, Agatangel Crimean et al. As early as 1879 the Polish scientist-linguist Michael Krasuskiy in the labour asserted «Antiquity of Ukrainian», that Ukrainian not only the eldest from all of Slavonic but also from a sanskrit, Greek, Latin and other Aryan languages. . Archaeological finds testify presence of writing signs on clay tableware, pryaslicakh, weapon etc. yet to the tripol'skiy period.»
Will turn the special attention on the following self-control from the that article: «For the attentive reader of the Old Russian monuments the row of phonetic lines of Ukrainian is opened: nіmaya, sіm’ya, stіni (comparatively with Russian: nemaja, semja, ateny); transition of E in O after hissings: zhona, cholovіk, nіchogo, in place of zhena, chelovek, nichego; end letter V in verbal adverbs wherein in Russian of L; khodiv, kosiv, brav. An academician A. Krymskiy found these phenomena in collection of Svyatoslava 1073. Often enough in the monuments of the Old Russian letter it is enough often there are such cleanly the Ukrainian linguistic phenomena, as alternation of consonants of G-Z, K-C, KH-S in a dative case: dorozі, dіvcі, kozhusі (as compared to Russian doroge, devke, cozhuhe). Or initially the Ukrainian forms of pronouns: tobі, sobі (Russians - tebe, sebe) and others like that.
Rich material for researchers is put such grammatical category as verbal adverb. So much Ukrainian forms are here revealed, what only their enumeration testifies convincingly, that Sonth-Russian literary monuments were written with the chroniclers of the Ukrainian origin. It is soft completions of 3th kind: nosit', kosit' (by comparison to Russian nosit, kosit) or disappearance of fleksii -t': є (in place - est), bere (in place of beret'), bude (in place of budet'). Interestingly, that more archaic form of future time was saved in Ukrainian, than in the Newly-Ukrainian language: znatimu, chitatimu, robitimu (in novo-ukr. – budu znaty). In olden times this form had such kind: gentlefolks + imam' (de imam' is an auxiliary word which destroyed and and vido changed in the modern Ukrainian form). The very ancient also ending of -mo is in verbal adverbs: znaєmo, khodymo (in novo-ukr. - znaem, khodim). Agatangel the Crimean asserts: «. comparatively-historical reflections show that it -mo considerably more senior even times of the Kiev’s State». There is in his labour «Ukrainian - from where it undertook and as it developed» He draws a conclusion: «Language of Naddneprovschiny and Chervonoy of Russia of times of Vladimir of Saint and Yaroslava Wise has in majority it already all of modern malorossiyskie-Ukrainian features».
The both Russian and foreign scientists were engaged in the questions of comparative lexicography of the Ukrainian and Russian languages. For example, the professor of the Oxford university Charles Abel selected two branches of Russian nationality: slavyanorusy (Ukrainians) and finnorusy (Moscow-muscovies). He writes, that as early as the end of XIX century only in European part of Russia the 40 million Finno-Tatars population and only 15 millions of slavonic lived number. Here therefore the process of oslavyanivaniya of Muscovy delayed more than on 500 years. Reason is large territories, wave of finno-Ugorskikh and Tatar ethnic elements. At Peter I it was forbidden to talk that clean not velikorusy live in Siberia and Asiatic earths, but finno-Ugry, Tatars and other people.»
In our view an exceptional value is had examples of complete (pereosmysleniya) giving of other sense of words. For example: Ukrainian likhyj - wicked, bad, at Russians likhoj - bold, udaloy; Ukrainian layati - to scold, at Russians layatj - to bark; Ukrainian dytyna (child), at Russians detina is a large man; Ukrainian zapam’yatati (to memorize) - at Russians of zapamyatstvovat' - to forget; Ukrainian vrodlyvyj (beautiful), and at Russians it ugly. And such examples of complete (pereosmysleniya) giving of other sense of words it is possible to lead very much.
Probably, the phonetic features of the literary Ukrainian language have the special value. Therefore we will bring a few indentions over, which without changes repeat oneself in many editions, - «Main phonetic features of literary language: distinction of front "I” and more back "I"; transition of old "o", "e" in the closed syllable in "I” ("snop - snip"); successive change Old Russian "o” in "i” (loto - lito); change of "e" in "o" after hissings and "sh” before hard consonants regardless of accent (schoka, pshono); coincidence of Old Russian "y" and "i" in from Old Russian "rъ'", "lъ'", "rь", "lь" in the opened unaccented syllable (kryshyty - "kroshyt" ); sound of "i" in place of reducirovannogo ъ and ь before y (shiya); use one vowel of "y" (ryba, Syla); combination of "ri" "li", affricates (khodzhu, dzvin), fricative g (golova); hardening of consonants before "e", labelial, hissings and "r" at the end of syllable; maintainance of soft "c"; maintainance of ringings consonants at the end of word and before deaf (snig, dub, kladka): long soft consonants, arising up as a result assimilations to the soft consonants of subsequent j (buttya, pitannya, pichchyu), sound [w] (orthographic "v") in place of Old Russian "l" before to the consonants and in the verbs of past tense of masculine (vovk, khodiv); variants of word with initial "i” – "u”, at - in (iti - uti, uchitel' - vchitel'); proteticheskie "v", "g" (vukho, gostriy). Difference from Russian in morphology: vocative of nouns (Peter); completion of -ovi, -evi in the dative case of nouns of II declension (bratovi); transition of "g", "k", "kh" in "z", "c", "s" before completion "i” (at luzi, on ruci, at vusi); absence of j and styazhenie of vowels is in the complete forms of nominativa and akkuzativa of adjectives of womanish, middle family, plural (chervona, chervonu, chervoni), form of comparative degree of adjectives with the suffix of -ish- and -sh- (dobrishiy, shirshiy); loss of completion -tь' in the 3th face of singular of present tense of verbs of 1th conjugation (zna, pishe); verbal completion of -mo is in the 1th face of plural (znaмо); synthetic form of verbs of future time (khodytymu); verbal adverbs on -chi (znayuchi, khodyachi). Specific lines of syntactic line-up: impersonal suggestions with a main member, expressed unalterable verbal forms on -no, -to (robotu vykonano); difficult nominal predicate in form accusative with a pretext "za" (starshyj brat buv nam za batka); originality of verbal management (dyakuvaty komu -"blagodarit kogo") and use of pretexts (o pershiy godini - "v pervom chasu") and other. Basis of vocabulary is made by the words of all-slavic origin, but there is a lot of words, appearing in Ukrainian in the period of his independent historical development, there are borrowings from Polish, German and other of languages.»
Thirdly, there is the real necessity to pay a regard to vocabulary, related to maintenance of economic processes, especially, on the dynamics of economic development in Central Europe (Regions of Galychiny and Lemberg). Exactly, therefore taking for a bar terminology of economic life it is possible leaning against the cognation of biotsocial bases (DNK) to develop the method of speed-up capture economic terminology (by a language economic culture) of the Ukrainian and Newly-Ukrainian languages the representatives of Romano-German’s linguistic family. By the way, a reverse process is possible, when representative of the Ukrainian and Newly-Ukrainian languages able quickly to seize the language culture of Romano-German’s linguistic family (a method will have to be substantially modernized).
For many intellectual persons in Ukraine already in 2000 became obvious, that a «molecule of DNK is a microscopic «book» with very difficult and deep sense is obvious track of Higher Reason which (track) succeeded to be considered geneticists only in 20th century. In this plan for creation adequate the modern tasks of methods of capture linguistic material internal work of individual must be preceded on the awareness of community of ethnic bases of historical people in the Christian World of Europe.
We are sure that dissertation work will win at consideration of the first classification of languages of the French scientist Skaligera (1539), and also works of scientists of 18th century of E. Kerda, Paulina and U. Zhdounza, and also works of the German linguists of F. Boppa, F. Dica and Ya. Grimma. It is necessary to analyzed the evolution of language in the book of Yokhana Vidmana (Leipzig, 1489), in the Byzantine manuscript (13th st.), in the Munich manuscript (12th st.), realizing approaches of Cambridge school of classic philology (Dzh. Kharrisa, Frensisa Konforda, A. Kuna, Gell-Manna Marri and other).
Exactly, on these the moment in dissertation and it is necessary to sharpen the special attention in a theoretical – methodological chapter (section).
In fourth, we would like to pay a regard to fact, which in our view eloquently testifies to deep and while the not analysed influence of the German language which also developed intensively, but on inherent its (him) laws, on becoming of the Newly-Ukrainian language (short - russ.). Specialists mark is «Mass penetration in Ukrainian speech of the Russian cripples, foreign words contaminates colloquially-domestic style of Ukrainian not only, it shows up both in a publicism and in scientific, and even in artistic styles.»
We have because of - form of Ukrainian common «speech» in the Donetsk, Zaporozhia, Lugansk and Rostov areas, which is named a "(surczyk) maslin". Consider that a surczyk (maslin) comes forward as the "third language". The interesting estimation of "surczyk (maslin)" is given by M. Flaer: "In a battle for linguistic championship a choice is determined two linguistic standards - Ukrainian and Russian language. However while they are striven for the role of high language in Ukraine, role low executes the Ukrainian-Russian surczyk (maslin)…" Very near to truth, presumably M. Strikha determines a "surczyk (maslin)" as "intermediate sub' language, which executes the role of the transitional stage in the assimilatory process of expulsing of Ukrainian Russian". Remains only to add not expulsing, but creation on the base of the processed constructions of the German language of the Newly-Ukrainian language, so-called Getto-Githas-Cossack language.
Characterizing this form, mark that a «Surczyk (maslin) scarcely can be considered the form of common speech foremost because he is in speech of not only people with the insufficient level of education but also in speech of politicians, journalists, teachers. A surczyk (maslin) is the result of the chaotic filling of the blasted links of structure of Ukrainian (in consciousness of talking) by the elements of Russian.» In general it would be interestingly in earnest to analyze reasons of the followings phenomena, namely:
1) stunning of consonants at the end of word or syllable (as is generally known, in Ukrainian a norm is consider absence of such stunning): khlі[p], lubo[f], naro[t], naro[т], ka[с]ka;
2) "akanje", characteristic for Russian and being unnormative in Ukrainian: "our [molat']" (our molod').
And also it is expedient to analyze - why students assume errors, related to violation of morphological norms of Ukrainian. It and wrong family belonging of nouns ("posuda" in place of "posud", "yarmarka" in place of "yarmarok"), formation of actual participles on the model of Russian ("peremіgshiy", "nastupivshiy"); and wrong management of verbs ("podyakuvati vchitelya" - will compare "poblagodarit' uchitelya").
Very model for the Newly-Ukrainian (short-Russian) language simplification of the multiple-valued concept of difficult interpersonality relations. So, for example, case with a noun "otnoshenie (relation)" to which in Ukrainian answer in different contexts and different values words "vіdnosyny", "vіdnoshennya", "vzaєmyny", "stosunky", "stavlennya". The last shows simple comparison of examples: "Ce not maє nіyakogo vіdnoshennya do mene"; "Mіzh by us sklalisya dobrі vіdnosyny (stosunky, vzaєmyny)" (Between you and me there were good relations); "U menia e svoje stavlennya do c'ogo" (I have the attitude toward it).
Interest and interlingual homonymy causes. Apparently, to this sphere it is necessary to take the followings cases: novo-ukr. rocza - morda, ukr. rocza - mallow; novo-ukr. Nedilia - seven days, ukr. nedіlya – Sunday (resurrection); novo-ukr. pylnyj - covered a dust, ukr. pil'niy - attentive; novo-ukr. meshkat' - to delay, ukr. meshkati - to live.
Very much it is possible to put interesting questions which require a skilled answer. Answer, which must take into account the historical process of forming of the Newly-Ukrainian language from the Anciently-Ukrainian language (language of Gettov) under influence of language of the European people (Gothas - ancient Germans), undertaking in 271 responsibility for the maintainance of the state system and culture of Getto-Dakkii/Ukraine. By the way, they executed the task and Independent Ukraine took a place in 1991, and cultural national tradition stormily regenerates from 2004, due to activity of the First National President of Ukraine Victor Andreevicha Yushchenko.
By a model in this connection there are words from the II book of Charles Vagriyskogo (Carlo Vagriese) and XI books of Laciya, which on their certificate was used Vandals-Goths:
Questionnaire of the Newly-Ukrainian language
(list of values of words in Stanislaw and in Ukraine specified yet)
*Only translating of these words from Italian into Newly-Ukrainian is done the candidate of physics-mathematical sciences Nosovskim G.V. and doctor of physics-mathematical sciences Fomenko A.T., therefore differs a tactlessness, as well as all of their tendentious monograph «EMPIRE. Russia. Turkey, China, Europe, Egypt. New mathematical chronology of antiquity» (Moscow,: Publ. «Factorial Press». 2000. - 752 p.).
Borrowing from Ukrainian/Ghetto-Dacca’s of language of many concepts and words by the German migrants - Goths (so they were named Ghetto-Dacca), and then their use of Europe practically all of people - does not cause a doubt even from the analysis of works of these two Italian scientists of Charles Vagriyskogo (Carlo Vagriese) and Laciya. By the way, Prokopiy Kesariyskiy, being in the troops of Velizariya (Bellisario) during his hikes against Gothas and personally visiting all of these people, acknowledges that all of them to one nation, have one name and talk in one language, on his expression, Goths (mark my - A.V.-M.).
Probably, this language adopted considerable part of concepts them Ghetto-Dacca/Ukrainian language. It allowed them to save and create on their basis the whole dictionary of the special technical terms which became international today.
However, similar assertion can be examined at level while hypothesis which it is necessary to confirm or refute. By the way, it is the not unique hypothesis which it is expedient to check up, coming even from this task. However, scientific ground of perception of Ukrainian/Ghetto-Dacca’s people, as ethnic and cultural basis at active creation and becoming of the German World (the electorate of Principality had this understanding Lithuanian in XIY century), the expenses of labour, time and nerves of a number of scientific schools of European Universities, rather than just one competitor cost. Because it is the unique (mainly - bezal'ternativnyy) way to spiritual integration of native (title) people of Europe, without which successes of socio-economic globalization will be unsteady.
From all of foregoing actuality of the offered theme of dissertation research and expedience does not cause a doubt to begin the searches of concrete facts and analysis of present material with the purpose of its implementation.
Therefore we send this material in Your University and hope on Your support and interested relation.
With sincere respect,
Alexander Valer'evich Vasiljev (Vasiljev-Muller)
Director of Institute of economical-socio-cultural researches named Olga W. Wasilievoy-Catholic, Dr. econ. (PhD), high scis.empl., member AAAS
|Категория: Germanariha-Mandrykino-Kremnes(Mariupol) /Cossack Mandryvn-Myzij Catholic-Iryna, Volodymyr | Добавил: Vasiljev (2009-12-07) | Автор: Alexander Vasiljev-Muller|
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