Alexander Vasiljev-Muller Dr.econ(PhD)


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Teach economics: the necessary utopia by Edgar Fog in XXI century - 12-08-2014

Doctor of Economics Vasiljev A.V.

Institute of Economic and Socio-Cultural Research

(successor DESMC Academy of Sciences of Ukraine)

Ph.D. Bersutskaya S.Y.

Donetsk University of Economics and Law

dots. Sedelnikova L.G.

Donetsk University of Economics and Law



Teach economics: the necessary utopia by Edgar Fog in XXI century.


The article shows the possibility of providing economic education throughout life, drawing on the analysis methodology evolution of incentive schemes in the light of the law of preservation labour and in keeping with the outstanding authorities of Economic Thought of Adam Smith, F.Liszt, V.Witte, P.Samuelson, M.Tugan-Baranovsky, N. Stolyarov, A.Chayanov, Dzh.Klark, P.Struve, V.Nemchinov, I.Fisher and others who wanted to help humanity to optimize the socio-economic development and socio-economic growth of civilization management responsibility of national states.



Keywords: marginal cost, marginal utility, needs, production, productivity, effectiveness, civilizational socio-economic responsibility, social harmony, democratic participation, studying economics, the nation-state, law of preservation labour


In UNESCO consider education a fundamental means of approval deeper and more harmonious form of human development, which will fight against poverty, exclusion, ignorance, oppression and war. And at the request of UNESCO Director-General Rene Maheu in the late twentieth century (1971), former Prime Minister and Education Minister Edgar Fog of France led a group of seven people, in front of which was tasked with identifying "those new goals that should be put before the formation in the light of the rapid transformation of society and encompassing knowledge, requirements development, aspirations of each individual and the need to ensure the unconditional international understanding and peace "and push" proposals relating to those intelligent human and financial resources that are needed to achieve these goals "[1].

That is, in the Commission's report Handicap "Learns to be" the first time at the European level insisted concept of education throughout life. Was elected six areas of analytical activities that gave the Commission the opportunity to approach their task in terms of the objectives of the educational process.

But what we can to implement the recommendations in our education system in the implementation of this concept?

Most likely, the most serious change in our attitude towards the implementation of the practice of modern education is associated with a real transformation of the existing system of coercion, working in a particular economy, humanistic saturated incentive system. This ratio should be based on real knowledge economy. Of the economy, which ensures compliance with the basic concept of its provisions - social justice. But methodological support of this process requires critical reflection of existing theoretical positions, their contemporary reading.

Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is in keeping with the outstanding authorities analyze the evolution of economic thought Methodology incentive systems, which forms the basis of modern economics cooperation.

Note that today continues to fall prestige highly efficient, honest work, deepening crisis "work ethic", etc. negative picture painted by representatives of the so-called behavioral sciences (sociology, social psychology, etc.). And associate it with the crisis of Christian morality, with a noticeable weakening of the Protestant ethic and the wrong direction with the development of civilization as a whole. Not drawn into controversy with experts on "the survival of humanity", pay attention only to the fact that the most difficult to solve complex socio-economic problems of both productive and non-productive structures to be on the foundation already established national and international economy [2] (the definition Friedrich List / / Gave on S.Y. Witte).

Under whatever point of view was not considered complex prevailing socio-economic problems, we can not ignore the need to meet people's needs to develop (to stimulate the emergence of new needs of higher order) and again to meet new and emerging needs. Namely, the optimal ratio of labor input and the level of satisfaction of the most important needs for workers and all are based incentive system. And the fact that "production is regulated by the marginal cost of what is produced," and "marginal utility of consumption is governed by what is consumed" [3], it was not only the axiom I. Fisher P.Samuelson, Dzh.Klark et but well understood and A.Chayanovym in 1912: "since the marginal utility decreases with increasing value of scrip coming into possession of the business entity, then at a certain height of labor income will come a time when painful marginal labor costs will be a subjective assessment limit usefulness of the amount [4]. On the grounds that "the costs are usually measured objectively and subjectively utility" [3] and is based wide variation of different incentive systems. Balanced assessment of the opportunity, especially becomes obvious if we consider the costs and utility in the light of the law of conservation of labor [20] in its broadest sense.

Methodological basis for the development of incentive systems for the majority of experts in the West is "the law of marginal utility, which manages the purchases made on the market today, also controls the production of an isolated man is a universal law of economics" [5]. Need to emphasize the role of Russian Economic School in deepening understanding of these fundamental laws. Thus, at the end XIX st. M.I.Tugan-Baranovsky as a whole cycle of works explained that "the usefulness of the last units freely reproducible products of each kind - their marginal utility - should be inversely proportional to the relative amount of these products manufactured in the unit of time, in other words, should be directly proportional labor cost of the same products "[6]. Maybe they are given enough convincing examples of mathematical calculations, however, Nikolai Stolyarov (1902) convincingly prove the correctness of intuition outstanding economist: "It is surprising that depth intuition author (M.I.Tugan-Baranovsky) in their area of ​​specialty, which was due to such substitution is possible deduction "[7]. N. Stolyarov absolutely right, explaining to the reader: "The fact that this formula (proposed by M.I. Tugan-Baranovsky) can be derived from the assumptions made about the properties of the concept of" good "and the idea of achieving the least expenditure of the greatest economic benefit close reasoning, quite apart from this example and its erroneous analysis "[7].

Interesting proof of the same ideas and gave V.Garshfeld in the article "A theorem on the proportionality of the marginal utilities of the benefits of labor value" [8], although, in our opinion, his work is much weaker evidence N.Stolyarov. But in this article we are interested not particularly evidence and the existence of a sufficiently strong Russian Economic School in Russia in the early twentieth century. Specify just work on A.V. Chayanov, which proves that "the number of units of labor, realized economic man in the labor sector, should decrease with increasing productivity" [4], and then analyzing the budgets of farms in the provinces of Switzerland and Russia , comes to the conclusion that probably "in parallel increases the type of needs" [4]. Last suggests that civilization in Russia then made ​​a major step forward, since at the time it was common knowledge that "civilize that some people - it means to generate new needs". [9] Therefore, in 1992, can only bitterly regret that this general methodological level for decades remained unknown to the general public of the country economic. If not for the withdrawal of scientific turnover whole layers of economic thought, then what would be really significant results could achieve economic development theory and practice of incentive systems (!). But we were not just a loser. After scientific, theoretical and methodological world space as a whole is one (especially in the humanities) and our "deception" and myth-making ambitions caused serious thinker West biased against labor theory of value. If we do forget their famous compatriots (M.I.Tugan-Baranovsky, V.Witte, N.Stolyarov, etc.), why they should know about the Englishman John Bates Clark? That created on both sides of "curtain" of the two warring camps representative theory printing bias and misunderstanding, and often simply ignorance of the history of scientific thought. Therefore, in the works Dzh.B.Klark no mention of labor value, and in the works V.S.Nemchinov - of marginal utility, but the latter has a desperate desire to resolve all substantive problems serious mathematical calculations, creating increasingly strict regulation with weak inverse bonds [10]. As a result, four-price system, which begins to crack during an elementary manifestation of entrepreneurial activity and the very slight increase in real income per capita. [17]

As in such conditions stimulate labor activity? Neither the practice nor theory do not give a satisfactory answer, and repeated experiments voluntarist only hindered the development process. It remains only to ruthlessly exploit the foundation of morality (a sense of patriotism, camaraderie, common decency, etc.), thereby exposing them to erosion.

Virtually impossible without some training to evaluate the system, being directly in it and evolving it to the immanent laws. But in moments of crisis of social development conditions themselves provide this opportunity rather wide range of people. What was supposed to be a huge gap in management practice, if the very category of property has been distorted beyond recognition. On what base the incentive system? Methodological foundation in what?

In this regard we can recall P.B.Struve opinion that "the entrepreneurial sector of our landlords in the era preceding the abolition of serfdom, was not in decline, as previously thought, and that from a purely economic point of view it did not require hired labor" [11]. Can not you spend some similarities with the situation in the Russian end of the twentieth century? Indeed, one and the same task: enter the full property relations as the basis for a system of incentives for efficient and effective work. Last specialists in the West know very well by introducing these relations even in the definition of the economy: "First, the economy can be defined as the science of wealth, wealth can also be defined as material objects, belonging to man. Wealth thus has two essential attributes: materiality and assignment ... wealth consists of assigned parts of the earth surface and assigned to objects on the surface (mark our)". [3] But it would be a mistake to absolute ownership role, ie since Aristotle in 350 BC wrote that "wealth is in use, rather than ownership." So it was just too used to see all the ills of incentive schemes in the absence of private property. and "extremely curious that most of the economic income of the company can not be capitalized and turned into private property. Since slavery was abolished, the law forbids to capitalize the human capacity to earnings "[12] - explains P.A.Samuelson. Voluntarism and misunderstanding general methodological foundations of incentive systems have created a situation where the level of wages in the production volume for the whole industry of the USSR in 1987 was 12.1%, including:

- in the metallurgical complex of at least 10.0%;

- In light industry within 7.0%;

- In the meat and dairy industry about 4.0% [13].

First, it says explicitly exceeded permissible reduction of public revenue under vigorous creation of a market for the means of production. On a practical level can be considered not understood rule that the "prorated social production no reduction in consumer demand can not cause an increase in the total supply of products on the market compared with the demand for the latest" [6]. In the United States did not have to go to such distortions and wages in the metal industry in the volume of products sold in 1969 reached 51.5%.

Second, the substantial absence of sharp differentiation in living standards of different groups of the population and workers of different sectors of the economy, marked differences of wages in the amount of products are indicators of price discrepancies labor cost, ie absolute impossibility of the economy without the administrative and managerial diktat.

Thesis that "the development of human society has only partly spontaneous, unconscious nature, and partly it is run by the conscious will of man" [6] is correct, but you can not use pricing, and hence the incentive systems that meet the needs, as a supplement to the administrative management. And the relationship between the branches of the national (national) economy, "wherever dominated normal prices, they point to a device group, in which one day's labor in the same group produces and receives as much as in any other group. When there is a complete balance of income of the group, if it is reduced to a value, the actual product has its own group "[14]. Therefore, the situation in the CIS economies, not only in terms of the abnormal level of wages in production volume, but not in the normal variation of this level by industry, which does not even come close to objectivity in the evaluation of employee performance. This is confirmed and fulfilled our calculations the level of profits in relation to the wages paid by industry of the USSR in 1986 [16]:

- Industry - 113.5%;

- Agriculture - 44.6%;

- In construction - 51.5%;

- Transport - 67.5%;

- Trade - 88.3%;

- In public services - 38.5%.

At the same time the level of profits in the U.S. firms to the level of wages did not exceed 5.83%. [17] In this case, it should be noted as a whole is too high profitability of our business and the actual practice of unjustified run-up in profitability industries. And the delicate mechanism, which is implemented in compliance with the law of conservation work on the methodological level of planning and economic departments of enterprises and industries [21], in the present conditions will not use one. Indeed, virtually all sociological studies suggest equal stress of labor in most sectors of the economy with low running start by region (and that a more comprehensive analysis of confounding factors). Therefore, we obtained the numbers suggest that the existing economic methods (price ratios) do not create a basis for the development of incentive systems without providing an objective comparison of financial indicators work of divers industries. There is the most shameless exploitation of all production of social groups, if the U.S. and other Western countries, the ratio between the firm's profit (after payment of taxes and other charges) and the volume of products sold, as a rule, does not exceed 3% (in the U.S. in 1961, the ratio was 2.8%), the level of profits in the value of products in the entire national economy of the USSR in 1986 was 13.4%. In this perspective should speak not of incentive systems, and the transformation of the system of coercion incentive system in Eastern Europe [15, 17]. And this task is today, not only to the Russian Federation, but also to Ukraine and Belarus before. A professor of economics in these countries have something to remember, especially during the 20s [22]. Would like to see this story unreasonable economic costs for industrialized countries is not repeated in the global economy with a recognized international scientific community and published in 1999, the law of conservation of labor, but in XXI century [21, 22].

That is, such an understanding of the economy need to teach young people today - this necessary utopia XXI century (definition Edgar Faure), which has been and will be supported in understanding the optimization of functioning of all economic systems really working. Effective functioning of these systems creates the conditions for a high level of socio-economic civilization responsibility exhibited by the leaders of nation-states for centuries. In accordance with the socio-economic Rankings civilization responsibility, which is calculated at the implementation of the Plan of scientific research for the years 2011-2015 with the promising areas of research until 2018 Institute of Economic and Socio-Cultural Research (successor DENMTS Academy of Sciences of Ukraine) and the Academic Council of the Academy of Economic Sciences and business activities in Ukraine in 2014, the level of practical implementation of economic laws in a number of industrialized countries of the modern world is to objectively, indeed, a high level [18]. But this does not mean that all these countries in their educational systems for the general population has gone from social harmony to democratic participation (from economic growth to human development), the need for which UNESCO seriously talked about in the 90s of the twentieth century [1]. It only indicates the emergence of a new labor law of conservation of sound rating objectively in value as reflecting labor expended in maintaining the national peoples of their right to the use of natural resources and a defined territory for which they have taken the responsibility to humanity and to some extent it justify (some states for several centuries, and some people still only for a few decades).




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Категория: Law-Preservation-labour / "Все богатство из Труда"(Библия) по Закону Сохранения Труда | Добавил: Vasiljev (2014-08-13) | Автор: A.Vasiljev,Bersutskaya-Sedelnikova
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